interesting work

From: Elaine Hunt (
Date: Tue May 18 1999 - 23:08:29 EEST

Mineralization of multilayer hydrogels as a model for mineralization of bone
 Author(s): Calvert, Paul; Frechette, Joelle; Souvignier, Chad
 Author Affiliation: Univ of Arizona
 Source: Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings Materials
Science of the Cell Proceedings of the 1997
 MRS Fall Meeting Dec 1-4 1997 v489 1998 Boston, MA, , USA, Sponsored by :
MRS MRS Warrendale PA USA p
 153-159 0272-9172 MRSPDH

 Abstract: Extrusion freeform fabrication is a 3-D layerwise writing
technique for forming objects directly under the control of a CAD program.
This method is one of a family of rapid prototyping methods which include
stereolithography, selective laser sintering and fused deposition modeling.
This system can be used to build shapes, layer by layer, from hydrogels of
agarose, polyacrylamide or other cross-linked water-soluble acrylic
polymers. Mineralization can be induced in these gels by building a part
with alternating layers of gels containing calcium and carbonate or
phosphate that can be formed into stacks which then mineralize by
cross-diffusion. The write head can be conceived of as a cell which
delivers the appropriate minerals to a site within a swollen gel matrix.
This diffusive mineralization process can thus be compared with bone
mineralization. The gel structure controls the morphology of the
 mineral. The site of mineralization is controlled by osmotic forces which
localize most of the mineral in whichever zone has the higher ionic
strength. The mineral content, expressed as a fraction of the polymer
content, is similar to that of
 bone but the water content is much higher than in bone. This raises the
question of what process drives the water exclusion during bone

 English (Author abstract) 9 Refs. Subjects: Hydrogels Polyacrylates;
Biomaterials; Multilayers; Bone; Extrusion; Computer aided design;
 Crystal structure; Morphology; Ionic strength; Swelling; Computer software;
 Classification Codes: 801.3; 804; 815.1.1; 462.5; 933.1; 461.2
 Document Type: CA
 Identifiers: Polyacrylamide; Agarose; Mineralization
Opinions, suggestions, and other controversial matter VOID where prohibited.
Elaine T. Hunt, Director
Clemson University Laboratory to Advance Industrial Prototyping
206 Fluor Daniel Bldg. Clemson, SC 29643-0925
864-656-0321 (voice) 864-656-4435 (fax)

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